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Internal Combustion Engine Handbook PDF

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Internal Combustion Engine Handbook Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives Edited by Richard van Basshuysen and Fred Schafer

Thorough in its presentation, this essential resource illustrates the latest level of knowledge in engine development, paying particular attention to the presentation of theory and practice in a balanced ratio. Almost 950 pages in length – with 1,250 illustrations and nearly 700 bibliographical references – the Internal Combustion Engine Handbook covers all of this component’s complexities, including an insightful look into the internal combustion engine’s future viability. An ideal publication for specialists in the automotive, engine, mineral oil, and accessories industries, this book will also prove to be useful for students, patent lawyers, the motor vehicle trade, government offices, journalists, and interested members of the public.

Part 1

Spark-Ignition Engine
Introduction to Ignition
Requirements of the Ignition System
Minimum Ignition Energy
Fundamentals of Spark Ignition
Phases of the Spark
Energy Transmission Efficiency
Coil Ignition System (Inductive)
Other Ignition Systems
Summary and Outlook
Spark Plugs
Demands on Spark Plugs
Heat Range
Required Voltage for Ignition
Ignition Characteristic (and Mixture Ignition)
Diesel Engines
Autoignition and Combustion
Diesel Engine Cold Starts
Important Influential Parameters
Start Evaluation Criteria
Components for Supporting Cold Starts
Glow Plug Systems
Heating Flange
Combined Systems
Measurement of Ionic Current
Regulated Glow Plug Systems
Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
Combustion in SI Engines
Mixture Formation
Intake Manifold Injection
Direct Injection
Combustion Process
Flame Propagation
Mean Pressure and Fuel Consumption
Cyclical Fluctuations
Engine Knock
Combustion in Diesel Engines
Mixture Formation
Fuel Jet Propagation
Combustion Process
Phenomenological Description
Equivalent Combustion Curves
Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer Model
Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficients
Combustion Systems
Combustion Systems for Diesel Engines
Diesel Combustion
Diesel Four-Stroke Combustion Systems
Methods using Indirect Fuel Injection (IDI)
Direct Fuel Injection Method (DI)
Comparison of Combustion Systems
Special Methods and Features
Spark-Injection Engines
Combustion Processes in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Engines
Combustion Process of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engines
Two-Stroke Diesel Engines
Two-Stroke SI Engines
Electronics and Mechanics for Engine Management and Transmission Shift Control Environmental Demands
Stand-Alone Products (Separate Devices)
Connecting Approaches
Integrated Products (MTM = Mechatronic Transmission Module)
Electronic Design, Structures, and Components
Basic Structure
Electronic Components
C Knocking Input Filter Component
Driver Stage Component
Voltage Regulator
Electronics in the Electronic Control Unit
General Description
Signal Conditioning
Signal Evaluation
Signal Output
Power Supply
CAN Bus Interface
Electronics for Transmission ECUs
Software Structures
Task of the Software In Controlling Engines
Demands on the Software
The Layer Approach to Software
The Software Development Process
Torque-Based Functional Structure for Engine Management
Model-Based Functions Using the Example of Intake Manifold Charging
λ Regulation
Antijerk Function
Throttle Valve Control
Knocking Control
“On-Board” Diagnosis (OBD)
Self-Diagnosis Tasks
Monitoring the Catalytic Converter
Safety Approaches
The Powertrain
Powertrain Architecture
The Motor-Vehicle’s Longitudinal Dynamics
Transmission Types
Power Level and Signal Processing Level
Transmission Management
Driving or Gearshift Strategy
Automatic Transmissions with Planetary Gears and Torque Converter
Automated Stick-Shift Transmissions
Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT)
Integrated Powertrain Management (IPM®)
The Integrated Starter-Motor/Alternator (ISG)
SG: A System Overview
Torque Structure in a Motor Vehicle
Starter-Motor/Alternator Structure
Description of the Starter-Motor/Alternator’s Most Important
Modes of Use
Converters (Powertrain Management and Voltage Converters)
Requirements Made on the Electronics from a System Viewpoint
Function Groups and Design Criteria
Classification of the Converter’s Power Electronics
DC/DC Converters
Electrical Machine
Design Criteria
Simulation Tools
Thermal Simulation
Mechanical Strengths
Requirements Made on the Electrical Machine
Series Development
Temperature Sensors
Knock Sensors
Exhaust Gas Sensors
Lambda Sensors
NOx Sensors
Pressure Sensors
Normal Pressure Sensors
Piezoresistive Measurement Principle
Capacitive Measurement Principle
Medium Pressure Sensors
High-Pressure Sensors
Technical Boundary Conditions
Signal Transmission
Measuring Precision
Air Mass Sensors
Comparison of Air Mass-Controlled and Intake Manifold Pressure-Controlled Systems
Measuring Principles
Hot-Film Anemometer
Secondary Air Mass Sensors (SAF)
Speed Sensors
Passive Speed Sensors
Active Sensors
Drives for Charge Controllers
Pneumatic Drives
Electric Drives
Stepping Motor
DC Motor
Torque Motor
Throttle Valve Actuators
Key Function in SI Engines
Key Function in Diesel Engines and in Quality-Controlled SI Engines (Direct Injection)
Additional Functions
Idle-Speed Control of SI Engines
Position Signal
Dashpot Function
Cruise Control Function
“Drive by Wire”/E-Gas
Charge Pressure Control
Vacuum/Prethrottle Actuators
Swirl and Tumble Plates
Swirl Plate Actuators (Swirl/Tumble Actuators)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valves
Evaporative Emissions Components
Canister-Purge Valves
Evaporative Emissions Diagnostics
Tank Diagnostics with Pressure
Tank Diagnostics with Vacuum
Cooling of Internal Combustion Engines
Demands on the Cooling System
Principles for Calculation and Simulation Tools Engine Cooling Subsystems
Coolant Cooling
Radiator Protection Media
Exhaust Gas Cooling
Oil Cooling
Fans and Fan Drives
Cooling Modules
Overall Engine Cooling System
Exhaust Emissions
Legal Regulations
California, USA
Harmonizing Exhaust Emission Regulations
Measuring Exhaust Emissions
Measuring Techniques for Certifying Automobiles
Measuring Technology for Engine Development
Pollutants and Their Origin
Spark-Injection Engines
Restricted Exhaust Emission Components
Unrestricted Exhaust Components
Diesel Engines
Restricted Exhaust Components
Unrestricted Exhaust Emission Components
Reducing Pollutants
Engine-Related Measures
Spark-Injection Engines
Diesel Engines
Exhaust Gas Treatment for Spark-Ignition Engines
Catalytic Converter Design and Chemical Reactions
Catalytic Converter Approaches for Stoichiometric Engines
Three-Way Catalytic Converter
Oxygen Storage Mechanism
Cold Start Strategies
Deactivation and Its Effect
Catalytic Converter Approaches for Lean-Burn Engines
Options for NOx Reduction in Lean Exhaust Gas
The NOx Storage Catalytic Converter
System with a Precatalytic Converter and NOx Adsorber
Metal Catalytic Converter Substrates
Exhaust Treatment in Diesel Engines
Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters
Pollutants in Diesel Exhaust
Characteristics of Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters
Deactivating the Catalyst Surface
Evaluating Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters
NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Passenger Cars
Operating Range of Storage Catalytic Converters
Regeneration Methods
Particle Filters
Particle Definitions and Particle Properties
Goals of Particle Filtration
Requirements for Filter Media and Technical Solutions
Deposition and Adhesion
Regeneration and Periodic Cleaning
Regeneration Emissions and Secondary Emissions
Pressure Loss
Installation Area and System Integration
Damage Mechanisms, Experience
Quality Criteria
Performance Test, Type Test, OBD, Field Control
Catalytic Soot Filter
Particle Measuring
Operating Fluids
Diesel Fuel
Diesel Fuel Components and Composition
Characteristics and Properties
Additives for Diesel Fuel
Alternative Diesel Fuels
Gasoline Components and Composition
Characteristics and Properties
Alternative Gasolines
Types of Lubricants
Task of Lubrication
Types of Lubrication
Lubrication Requirements
Viscosity/Viscosity Index (V.I.)
Influence of Temperature on Viscosity
Influence of the Pressure on the Viscosity
Influence of Shear Speed on Viscosity
Basic Liquids
Mineral Basic Oils
Synthetic Basic Liquid
Additives for Lubricants
Detergents and Dispersants
Antioxidants and Corrosion Inhibitors
Friction and Wear Reducers (EP/AW Additives)
Foam Inhibitors
Engine Oils for Four-Stroke Engines
SAE Viscosity Classes for Engine Oils
Single-Grade Engine Oil
Multigrade Oils
Fuel Economy Oils
Break-In Oils
Gas Engine Oils
Methanol Engine Oils
Hydrogen Engine Oils
Performance Classes
Evaluating Used Oil
Racing Engine Oils
Wankel Engine Oils
Engine Oils for Two-Stroke Engines
Two-Stroke Performance Classes
Two-Stroke Test Methods
Frost Protection
Corrosion Protection
Filtration of Operating Fluids
Air Filter
The Importance of Air Filtration for Internal Combustion Engines
Impurities in Engine Intake Air
Data for Assessment of Air-Filter Media
Measuring Methods and Evaluation
Requirements Made on Modern Air-Filter Systems
Design Criteria for Engine-Air Filter Elements
Filter Housings
Design of Filter Housings
Fuel Filters Gasoline Fuel Filters
Diesel-Fuel Filters
The Performance Data of Fuel Filters
Engine-Oil Filtration
Wear and Filtration
Full-How Oil Filters
Removal Efficiency and Filter Fineness
Bypass Oil Filtration
Calculation and Simulation
Strength and Vibration Calculation
Procedures and Methods
Selected Examples of Applications
Piston Calculations
Flow Calculation
One- and Quasidimensional Methods
Three-Dimensional Flow Calculation
Selected Examples of Application
Combustion Diagnostics
Measuring Systems
Quality Criteria
Indicating: Prospects
Functions and Discussion
Visualization Methods for Real Engine Operation
The Radiant Properties of Gas, Gasoline, and Diesel Flames
Flame Spectroscopy
Flame Propagation in Premixed Charges with Supplied Ignition
Flame Propagation in Diffusion Combustion in a Diesel Engine
Visualization of Combustion in Real Engine Operation by the Flame’s Intrinsic Luminescence
Technical Exploitation: Flame Propagation
Visualization of Illuminated Processes
Visualization of Mixture Distribution
Visualization of Velocity Fields
Visualization: The Future
Fuel Consumption
General Influencing Factors
Air Resistance
Wheel Resistance
Fuel Consumption
Engine Modifications
Diesel Engine
Gasoline Engine
The Lean-Burn Engine Concept and Direct Injection
Variable Valve Timing
Cylinder Shutoff
Concept for Reduction of Fuel Consumption
Consumption Benefits in the Part-Load Range
Transmission Ratios
Selection of Direct Transmission
Selection of Overall Transmission Ratio in the Highest Gear
Driver Behavior
CO2 Emissions
CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption
The Influence of Engine Use on CO2 Emissions
The Trend in Global CO2 Emissions
Noise Emissions
Basic Physical Principles and Terms
Legal Provisions Concerning Emitted Noise
Methods of Measuring Emitted Noise
Critical Evaluation of the Informational Value of the Emitted Noise Measuring Method
Emitted Noise Limits, International Legislation; Future Trends
Sources of Emitted Noise
Emitted Noise-Reduction Provisions
Provisions on the Engine
Provisions on the Vehicle
Engine Noise in the Vehicle Interior
Acoustic Guidelines for the Engine Designer
Measuring and Analytical Methods
Sound Engineering
Simulation Tools
Antinoise Systems: Noise Reduction using Antinoise
Alternative Propulsion Systems
The Rationales for Alternatives
The Wankel Engine
Electric Propulsion
Hybrid Propulsion System
Storage Systems
The Stirling Engine
Gas Turbines
The Steam Motor
The Fuel Cell as a Vehicle Propulsion System
The Structure of the PEM Fuel Cell
Hydrogen as the Fuel
Methanol as the Fuel
Gasoline Engine Fuel
The Fuel Cell in the Vehicle
Evaluation of the Fuel Cell vis-à-vis Other Propulsion Systems
About the Editors
Color Section

Internal Combustion Engine Handbook: Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives. Part 1

Author(s): Basshuysen R., Schafer F. (eds.)



Part 2

Historical Review
Definition and Classification of Reciprocating Piston Engines
Potentials for Classification
Combustion Processes
Working Cycles
Mixture Generation
Gas Exchange Control
Load Adjustment
Speed and Output Graduations
Piston Displacement and Bore-to-Stroke Ratio
Compression Ratio
Rotational Speed and Piston Speed
Torque and Power
Fuel Consumption
Gas Work and Mean Pressure
Air Throughput and Cylinder Charge
Air-Fuel Ratio
Consumption Maps
Emission Maps
Ignition and Injection Maps
Exhaust Gas Temperature Maps
Thermodynamic Fundamentals
Cyclical Processes
Comparative Processes
Simple Model Processes
Constant Volume Cycle
Constant Pressure Cycle
Seiliger Process
Comparison of the Cyclical Processes
Energy Losses
Open Comparative Processes
Work Cycle of the Perfect Engine
Elements of Calculation
Work of the Perfect Engine
Effectiveness of the Perfect Engine
Exergy Loss in the Perfect Cycle
Approximation of the Real Working Cycle
Models to Determine Combustion Behavior
Energy Balance in the Engine
Balance Equation
Crank Gears
Crankshaft Drive
Design and Function
Forces Acting on the Crankshaft Drive
Tangential Force Characteristic and Average Tangential Force
Inertial Forces
Inertial Forces in Single-Cylinder Crank Gears
Inertial Forces in a Two-Cylinder V Crank Gear
Inertial Forces and Inertial Torque in Multicylinder Crank Gears
Mass Balancing
Balancing Single-Cylinder Crank Gears
Balancing Multicylinder Crank Gears
Internal Torque
Throw and Firing Sequences
Rotational Oscillations
Reduction of the Machine System
Natural Frequencies and Modes of Natural Vibration
Exciter Forces And Exciter Work
Measures to Reduce Crankshaft Excursions
Two-Mass Flywheels
Engine Components
Pistons / Wristpins / Wristpin Circlips
Requirements and Functions
Engineering Designs
Offsetting the Boss Bore
Installation Play and Running Play
Piston Masses
Operating Temperatures
Piston Cooling
Piston Designs
Piston Manufacture
Protection of Running Surfaces/Surfaces
Piston Materials
Requirements and Dimensioning
Wristpin Snap Rings
Connecting Rod
Design of the Connecting Rod
Conrod Bolts
Conrod Ratio
Conrod Manufacture
Manufacturing the Blank
Conrod Materials
Piston Rings
Compression Rings
Oil Control Rings
Ring Combinations
Characterizing Features
Wear-Protection Layers
Surface Treatments
Contact Surface Shapes for Piston Rings
Materials for Piston Rings
Loading, Damage, Wear, Friction
Engine Block
Assignments and Functions Engine Block Design
Types of Engine Blocks
Optimizing Acoustic Properties
Minimizing Engine Block Mass
Casting Processes for Engine Blocks
Die Casting
Die Casting
Lost-Foam Process
Sand Casting
Squeeze Casting
Cylinder Designs
Monolithic Design
Insertion Technique
Bonding Technology
Machining Cylinder Running Surfaces
Machining Processes
Cylinder Cooling
Water Cooling
Air Cooling
Oil Pan
Oil Pan Design
Crankcase Venting
Conventional Crankcase Ventilation
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PVC) System
Vacuum-Regulated Crankcase Ventilation
Cylinder Head
Basic Design for the Cylinder Head
Layout of the Basic Geometry
Determining the Manufacturing Processes
Layout of the Gas Exchange Components
Variable Valve Control
Cylinder Head Engineering
Laying out the Rough Dimensions
Combustion Chamber and Port Design
Valve Train Design
Cooling Concepts
Lubricating Oil Management
Engineering Design Details
Engineering in Construction Steps
Using CAD in Engineering
Computer-Assisted Design
Casting Process
Sand Casting
Die Casting
Lost-Foam Process (Full Mold Process)
Pressure Die-Casting Process
Model and Mold Construction
Machining and Quality Assurance
Mass-Production Manufacture
Prototype Manufacturing
Quality Assurance for Cylinder Heads
Shapes Implemented for Cylinder Heads
Cylinder Heads for Gasoline Engines
Cylinder Heads for Diesel Engines
Special Cylinder Head Designs
Perspectives in Cylinder Head Technology
Function in the Vehicle
The Crankshaft in the Reciprocating Piston Engine
Manufacturing and Properties
Process and Materials
Materials Properties for Crankshafts Lightweight Engineering and Future Trends
Hollow Cast Crankshafts
ADI Austempered Ductile Iron
Increasing Component Strength through Postcasting Treatment
Valve Train Components
Valve Train
Direct Drive Valve Trains
Indirect Drive Valve Trains
Hydraulic Valve Play Compensation
Mechanical Valve Play Adjustment
Future Trends
Belt Tensioning Systems, Idler and Deflection Pulleys
Automatic Belt Tensioning System for Synchronous Belt Drives
dler and Deflection Pulleys for Synchronous Belt Drives
Prospects for the Future
Chain Tensioning and Guide Systems
Chain Tensioning Element
Tensioning and Guide Rails
Functions and Explanation of Terms and Concepts
Types of Valves and Manufacturing Techniques
Monometallic Valves
Bimetallic Valves
Hollow Valve
Valve Head
Valve Seat
Valve Stem
Valve Materials
Heat Treatment
Surface Finishing
Special Valve Designs
Exhaust Control Valves
Valve Keepers
Tasks and Functioning
Manufacturing Techniques
alve Rotation Devices
Designs and Functioning
Valve Springs
Valve Seat Inserts
Demands Made on Valve Seat Inserts
Loading on Valve Seat Inserts
Materials and Their Properties
Geometry and Tolerances
Cylinder Head Geometry and Assembly
Valve Guides
Requirements for Valve Guides
Loading on Valve Guides
Materials and Properties
Materials Properties
Geometry of the Valve Guide
Installing in the Cylinder Head
Oil Pump
Overview of Oil Pump Systems
Internal Gear Pump
External Gear Pump
Vane Pumps
Benefits and Drawbacks of Individual Pump Systems Regulation Principles
Direct Regulation
Indirect Regulation
Regulation in the Clean Oil Stream
Two-Stage or Multistage Regulation
Two-Stage Regulation Pump
Regulated Internal Gear Pump
Regulated External Gear Pump
Regulated Vane Pump
Engineering Basics
Crankshaft Pump
Sump Pump
Key Oil Pump Values Taken from Practice
Comparison between Crankshaft and Sump Pumps
Cavitation and Noise Emissions
Numerical Simulation of Flow—CFD
One-Dimensional Simulation of Flow Grids
Camshaft Functions
Valve Train Configurations
Structure of a Camshaft
Technologies and Materials
Cast Camshaft
Assembled Camshaft
Steel Camshaft
Materials Properties and Recommended Matches
Reduction of Mass
Factors Influencing Camshaft Loading
Designing Cam Profiles
Kinematics Calculation
Dynamics Calculations
Camshaft Shifter Systems
Chain Drive
Chain Designs
Typical Chain Values
Chain Guide Elements
Belt Drives
Belt Drives Used to Drive Camshafts
Synchronous Belt Drive
Synchronous Belt Drive System
Synchronous Belt Dynamics
Application Examples
Toothed V-Belt Drive to Power Auxiliary Units
Micro-V® Drive Belts
Auxiliary Component Drive System
Application Examples
Bearings in Internal Combustion Engines
Radial Bearing
Axial Bearing
Calculating and Dimensioning Engine Bearings
Bearing Journal Displacement Path
Elastohydrodynamic Calculation
Major Dimensions: Diameter, Width
Oil Feed Geometry
Precision Dimensions
Bearing Materials
Bearing Metals
Types of Bearings—Structure, Load-Bearing Capacity, Use
Solid Bearings Two-Material Bearing
Three-Material Bearing
Miba™ Grooved Bearings
Sputter Bearing
Bearing Failure
Progress of Damage
Types of Bearing Damage
Prospects for the Future
Intake Systems
Thermodynamics in Air Intake Systems
Sealing Systems
Cylinder Head Sealing Systems
Ferrolastic Elastomer Head Gaskets
Metal-Elastomer Head Gaskets
Metaloflex ® Layered Metal Head Gaskets
Prospects for the Future
Special Seals
Functional Description of the Flat Seal
Elastomer Seals
Metal-Elastomer Seals
Special Metaloseal ® Gaskets
Prospects for the Future
Elastomer Sealing Systems
Elastomer Seals
Metal-Elastomer Gaskets
Development Methods
Finite Element Analysis
Simulation in the Laboratory—Testing Functions and Service Life
Threaded Connectors at the Engine
High-Strength Threaded Connectors
Quality Requirements
Threaded Connectors
Head Bolt
Main Bearing Cap Bolt
Conrod Bolt
Belt Pulley Bolt
Flywheel Bolt
Camshaft Bearing Cap Bolt
Oil Pan Attaching Screws
Threaded Connections in Magnesium Components
Screw Tightening Process
Torque-Controlled Tightening
Rotation-Angle Controlled Tightening
Tightening under Yield Point Control
Exhaust Manifold
Manifold Development Process
Manifolds as Individual Components
Cast Manifold
Tube Manifold
Single-Wall, Half-Shell Manifold
Manifolds with Air Gap Insulation (AGI Manifold)
The Manifold as a Submodule
Integrated Manifold and Catalytic Converter
Integrated Manifold and Turbochanger
Manifold Components
Control Mechanisms for Two-Stroke Cycle Engines
Tribological Principles
Lubrication System Lubrication
Components and Function
Friction States
Methods of Measuring Friction
Influence of the Operating State and the Boundary Conditions
Run-in State of the Internal Combustion Engine
Oil Viscosity
Temperature Influence
Engine Operating Point
Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption
Friction Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines Already Built
Breakdown of Friction
Engine Power Unit
Conrod Bearing and Piston Group
Mass Balancing
alve Timing (Valve Train and Timing Gear)
Oil Pump
Coolant Pump
Fuel Injection Pump
Air Conditioning Compressor
Radiator Fan
Power Steering Pump
Vacuum Pump
Charge Cycle
Gas Exchange Devices in Four-Stroke Engines
Valve Gear Designs
Components of the Valve Gear
Kinematics and Dynamics of the Valve Gear
Design of Gas Exchange Devices in Four-Stroke Engines
Calculating Charge Cycles
The Charge Cycle in Two-Stroke Engines
Gas Exchange Organs
Scavenging Air Supply
Variable Valve Actuation
Camshaft Timing Devices
Overview of the Functional Principles of Camshaft Timing Devices
The Effects of Camshaft Timing Devices on Engines
Camshaft Adjusters for Production Engines
Reflections about Camshaft Adjusters
Systems with Stepped Variation of the Valve Stroke or Opening Time
Infinitely Variable Valve Actuation
Mechanical Systems
Hydraulically Actuated Systems
Electromechanical Systems
Pulse Charges and Load Control of Reciprocating Piston Engines Using an Air Stroke Valve
Design and Operation of the Air Stroke Valve
Options for Influencing the Charge Cycle
Dynamic Supercharging in Induction Engines (Pulse Charge)
Supporting and Recharging Supercharged Engines
Throttle-Free Load Control
EGR Control
Hot Charging
Cold Charging Supercharged Engines
Cylinder Shutoff
Prototype for Engine Tests
Parameters and Design
Implemented Prototype
Demonstration of Function in Single-Cylinder Engines
Increasing Air Expenditure by Dynamic Supercharging
Increasing Torque by Dynamic Supercharging
Required Air Stroke Valve Operating Times in Dynamic Supercharging
Hot Charging
Summary and Outlook
Supercharging of Internal Combustion Engine
Mechanical Supercharging
Exhaust Gas Turbocharging
Interaction of Engine and Compressor
Four-Stroke Engine in the Compressor Map
Mechanical Supercharging
Exhaust Gas Turbocharging
Dynamic Behavior
Additional Measures for Supercharged Internal Combustion Engines
SI Engines
Diesel Engines
Mixture Formation and Related Systems
Internal Mixture Formation
External Mixture Formation
Mixture Formation using Carburetors
Mode of Operation of the Carburetor
Number of Intake Air Ducts
Position of the Intake Air Duct
Designs for Special Applications
Important Auxiliary Systems on Carburetors
Electronically Controlled Carburetors
Constant Vacuum Carburetor
Operating Behavior
Lambda Closed-Loop Control
Mixture Formation by Means of Gasoline Injection
Intake Manifold Injection Systems
Systems for Direct Injection
Air-Supported Direct Injection
High-Pressure Injection
Injected Fuel Metering
Mixture Formation in Diesel Engines
Injection Systems—An Overview
Systems with Injection-Synchronous Pressure Generation
Individual Pump Systems with a Line
Inline Fuel Injection Pumps
Distributor Injection Pump
Pump Nozzle System
Systems with a Central Pressure Reservoir
High-Pressure Pump
Rail and Lines
Injection Nozzle
Developmental Trends
Injection Nozzles and Nozzle-Holder Assemblies
Adapting the Injection System to the Engine

Internal Combustion Engine Handbook: Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives. Part 2

Author(s): Basshuysen R., Schafer F. (eds.)



Internal Combustion Engine Handbook: Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives. Part 1 & 2 Combined



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