## Engineering Physics By V Rajendran

Engineering Physics GTU Book (3300004) is Gtu guide for Gujarat Technological College Mechanical Department College students in Engineering First 12 months by V Rajendran.

With a robust concentrate on basic rules of Engineering Physics and emphasis on engineering purposes, this guide goals to assist college students grasp the significance of bodily ideas in real-life eventualities. The easy language and enhanced pedagogical options make it simple for the reader to have a superior understanding of fundamental theories of engineering physics.

### Author(s): V. Rajendran

Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill, Year: 2011

ISBN: 9780071070140

Cover
Half Title
Title Page
Preface
Acknowledgements
Foreword
Contents
Chapter 1. Elasticity
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Classification of Elastic Materials
1.3 Stress
1.4 Strain
1.5 Hooke’s Law
1.6 Elastic Behaviour of a Material
1.7 Factors Affecting Elasticity
1.8 Classification of Elastic Modulus
1.9 Poisson’s Ratio
1.10 Relation Between Elastic Moduli
1.11 Twisting Couple on a Wire
1.12 Twisting Couple on a Solid Shaft
1.13 Torsional Pendulum
1.14 Bending of Beam
1.15 Cantilever
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 2. Viscosity
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Coefficient of Viscosity
2.3 Streamline and Turbulent Flow
2.4 Reynold’s Number
2.5 Poiseuille’s Equation for the Flow of a Liquid Through a Tube
2.6 Motion of a Rigid Body in a Viscous Medium
2.7 Experimental Determination of Viscosity of a Liquid
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objective Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 3. Vacuum Technique
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Types of Pumps
3.3 Vacuum Systems
3.4 Production of Vacuum
3.5 Measurements of Vacuum
3.6 Importance of Vacuum in Industries
3.7 Vacuum Techniques Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Objective Questions
Descriptive-Type Questions
Chapter 4. Acoustics
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Classification of Sound
4.3 Characteristics of Musical Sounds
4.4 Transmission of Sound
4.5 Transmission Loss
4.6 Acoustics of Buildings
4.7 Sabine’s Formula for Reverberation
4.8 Measurement of Absorption Coefficient
4.9 Sound Absorbing Materials
4.10 Factors Affecting Acoustics of Buildings and Their Remedies
4.11 Principles to be Observed in the Acoustical Design of an Auditorium
4.12 Acoustical Analysis and its Correction
4.13 Sound Insulation
4.14 Noise Pollution
4.15 Noise Control in Machines
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Exercises
Objectives Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 5. Ultrasonics
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Classification of Ultrasonic Waves
5.3 Properties of Ultrasonic waves
5.4 Generation of Ultrasonic waves
5.5 Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements
5.6 Absorption and Dispersion of ultrasonic waves
5.7 Source of Sound Absorption and Dispersion
5.8 Applications—Industry
5.9 Applications—Medicine
5.10 Acoustic Holography
5.11 General Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 6. Non-Destructive Testing
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Classification of Testing Methods
6.3 Visual Inspection
6.4 Liquid Penetrant Testing
6.6 Ultrasonic Testing
6.7 Thermography
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 7. Interference
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Interference Produced in Thin Films due to Reflected Light
7.3 Air Wedge
7.4 Anti-Reflection Coating
7.5 Multi Layer Periodic System
7.6 High-Pass and Low-Pass Filters
7.7 Nterference Filter (Fabry–Perot Interference Filter)
7.8 Michelson’s Interferometer
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 8. Polarisation
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Fundamentals of Polarised Light
8.3 Nicol Prism
8.4 Quarter Wave Plate
8.5 Half Wave Plate
8.6 Theory of Polarised Light
8.7 Plane Polarised Light by Nicol Prism
8.8 Production of Plane, Circularly and Elliptically Polarised Light
8.9 Detection of Plane, Circularly and Elliptically Polarised Light
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Exercises
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 9. Photoelasticity
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Definitions
9.3 Theory of Photoelasticity
9.4 Arrangement of Optical Elements in a Polariscope
9.5 Interpretation of Isoclinic and Isochromatic Fringes
9.6 Photoelastic Bench
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 10. Optical and Other Instruments
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Sextant
10.3 Metallurgical Microscope
10.4 Focusing of Electron Beams
10.5 Electron Microscope
10.6 Scanning Electron Microscope
10.7 Transmission Electron Microscope
10.8 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope
Keypoints to Remember
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 11. Laser
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Principle of Laser
11.3 Einstein’s Theory of Stimulated Emission
11.4 Population Inversion
11.5 Methods of Achieving Population Inversion
11.6 Threshold Condition (Schawlow and Townes ­Condition)
11.7 Types of Lasers
11.8 Determination of Wavelength of Laser Using Grating
11.9 Particle Size Determination by Laser
11.10 Applications of Lasers
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 12. Fiber Optics
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Optical Fibers–Principle
12.3 Structure of Optical Fibers
12.4 Acceptance Angle and Cone
12.5 Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle
12.6 Types of Optical Fibers
12.7 Fabrication of Optical Fibers
12.8 Loss in Optical Fibers
12.9 Fiber Optical Communication
12.10 Splicing
12.11 Light Sources for Fiber Optics
12.12 Photodetectors
12.13 Fiber Optical Sensor
12.14 Classification of Optical Sensors
12.15 Fiber Endoscope
12.16 Engineering Applications of Optical Fibers
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 13. Crystal Structure
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Fundamental Terms of Crystallography
13.3 Types of Crystals
13.4 Relation Between The Interplanar Distance and The Interatomic Distance
13.5 Crystal Structures of Materials
13.6 Simple Cubic Crystal Structure
13.7 Body Centred Cubic Structure
13.8 Face Centred Cubic Structure or Cubic Close Packed Structure
13.9 Hexagonal Closed Packed Structure
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 14. Waves and Particles
14.1 Introduction
14.2 De Broglie Wave
14.3 De Broglie Wavelength
14.4 Properties of Matter Waves.
14.5 Matter Waves—Experimental Verification
14.6 Schrödinger Wave Equation
14.7 Application of Schrödinger’s Equation to a Particle in a Box
14.8 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems.
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 15. Semiconductors
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Classification of Solids on the Basis of Band Theory
15.3 Classification of Semiconductors
15.4 Solar Cells
15.5 Display Devices
15.6 Active Display Devices
15.7 Passive Display Devices
15.9 Different Modes of LCD
15.10 Liquid Crystal Display System
15.11 Comparison Between LEDs and LCDs
15.12 Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 16. Electron Theory of Solids
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Electrical Conduction
16.3 Classification of Conducting Materials
16.4 Classical Free Electron Or Drude–Lorentz Theory of Metals
16.5 Expression For Electrical Conductivity and Drift Velocity
16.6 Thermal Conductivity
16.7 Expression For Thermal Conductivity
16.8 Wiedemann–Franz Law
16.9 Verification of Ohm’s Law
16.10 Classical Free Electron Theory: Advantages and Drawbacks
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions 16.
Chapter 17. Statistics and Band Theory of Solids
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Fermi-Dirac Statistics
17.3 Carrier Concentration (Free Electron Density) in Metals
17.4 Effect of Temperature on Fermi Energy Function
17.5 Significance of Fermi Energy
17.6 Effective Mass of an Electron
17.7 Concept of Hole
17.8 Band theory of Solids – Origin of Energy Gap
17.9 Conductivity of Copper and Aluminum
17.10 Effect of Temperature and Impurity on Electrical Resistivity of Metals (Matthiessen’s Rule)
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Type Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 18. Transport Properties of Semiconductorss
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Carrier Concentration in an Intrinsic Semiconductor
18.3 Conductivity of Semiconductors
18.4 Extrinsic Semiconductor
18.5 n-type semiconductor
18.6 p-type Semiconductor
18.7 Hall Effect
18.8 Variation of Electrical Conductivity with Temperature
18.9 Variation of Fermi Level with Temperature in Extrinsic Semiconductor
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 19. Superconducting Material
19.1 Introduction
19.2 General Propertiess of Superconducting Materials
19.3 Types of Superconductors
19.4 Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) Theory
19.5 Electron–­­Phonon Interaction
19.6 High Temperature Superconductors
19.7 Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 20. Magnetic Materials
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Magnetic Parameters
20.3 Bohr Magneton
20.4 Classification of Magnetic Materials
20.5 Origin of Permanent Magnetic Moment
20.6 Diamagnetism
20.7 Paramagnetism
20.8 Ferromagnetic Materials
20.9 Antiferromagnetic Materials
20.10 Ferrimagnetic Materials
20.11 Hard and Soft Magnetic Materials
20.12 Energy Product of Magnetic Matersials
20.13 Ferrite Core Memory
20.14 Magnetic Recording Materials
20.15 Magnetic Principle of Analog Recording and Recording
20.16 Magnetic Bubble Memory
20.17 Magnetic Principle in Computer Data Storage
20.18 Magnetic Tape
20.19 Floppy Disk
20.20 Magnetic Hard Disk
20.21 Computer Aided Tomography
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
Objectives Questions
Exercises
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 21. Dielectric Materials
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Definitions
21.3 Different Types of Polarisations
21.4 Local or Internal Field
21.5 Types of Dielectric Materials
21.6 Classification of Electrical Insulating Materials
21.7 Claussius-Mosotti Equation
21.8 Experimental Determination of Dielectric Constant
21.9 Dielectric Loss
21.10 Dielectric Breakdown
21.11 Ferroelectric Material
21.12 Dielectric Properties
21.13 Active and Passive Dielectrics
21.14 Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Properties
21.15 Uses of Dielectric MateRials
21.16 Application
Keypoints to Remember
Solved Problems
One Mark Question
Exercises
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 22. Shape Memory Alloys
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Origin of Shape Memory Alloys
22.3 Principle of Phase Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys
22.4 Shape Memory Alloys—Properties
22.5 Processing Techniques
22.6 Characterisation Techniques
22.7 Commercial Shape Memory Alloys
22.8 Shape Memory Alloys-Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 23. Nonlinear Materials
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Basic Principle
23.3 Classification of Nonlinear Materials
23.4 Nonlinear Properties
23.5 Nonlinear Materials
23.6 Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 24. Metallic Glasses
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Origin of Metallic Glasses
24.3 Principle
24.4 Preparation
24.5 Properties
24.6 Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Objectives Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 25. Biomaterials
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Biomechanism
25.3 Development of Biomaterials
25.4 Classification of Biomaterials
25.5 Processing and Properties
25.6 Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 26. Nanomaterial Synthesis
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials
26.3 Top-Down Approach-Nanomaterials Synthesis
26.4 Bottom Up Process—Synthesis of Nanoparticles
26.5 Vapour Phase Deposition
26.6 Epitaxial Techniques—Synthesis of Nanomaterials
26.7 Chemical Methods—Nanomaterial Synthesis
26.8 Hybrid Methods—Synthesis of Nanomaterials
26.9 Nanotechnology and Environment
26.10 Properties and Possible Applications
26.11 Storage
Keypoints to Remember
One Mark Question
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Chapter 27. Nanodevices
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Nanomagnets
27.3 Classifications of Nanomagnetic Materials
27.4 Magneto Resistances
27.5 Probing Nanomagnetic Materials
27.6 Nanomagnetism in Technology
27.7 Applications of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Devices
27.8 Applications of Semiconductor Nanostructure
27.9 Organic Semiconductor Materials Devices
27.10 Carbon Nanotubes
27.11 Types of Carbon Nanotubes
27.12 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes
27.13 Properties of CNT
27.14 Applications
Keypoints to Remember
Objectives Questions
Short Questions
Descriptive Questions
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4